Obesity is an American epidemic. Being overweight or obese puts you at risk for a number of diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, and respiratory disorders. The risk of developing these diseases is even higher when weight is concentrated near the waist (belly fat).
Obesity is an increasing problem. According to the National Institutes of Health, 60% of American adults are overweight and 35% are considered obese, while about 25% of American children are overweight or obese. And the numbers are rising. In fact, if current trends continue, more than half of American adults are likely to be obese by 2030. Taking weight off, and keeping it off, is difficult. Many people who lose weight later gain back some or all of the excess pounds.
Despite continuing research on obesity, there are no medications, herbs, or supplements that can help you lose a significant amount of weight, and all have some side effects. The only way to lose weight is to reduce the amount of calories you eat and increase your activity level. These actions improve your health in many ways -- in addition to helping you lose weight.
Signs and Symptoms
Obesity is usually determined by body mass index, or BMI -a formula that calculates a ratio of your height to your weight.
A high waist-to-hip ratio (indicating that fat is centered around the waist) increases the risk for developing serious, even life-threatening conditions associated with obesity. Generally, for men a ratio of .90 or less is considered safe. For women, .80 or less is considered safe.
Conditions that may accompany obesity include:
What Causes It?
Researchers know that obesity is the result of eating more calories than we burn off through activity, but a number of factors contribute to obesity:
The following factors may increase your risk for becoming obese:
The best way to prevent weight gain is to eat a healthy diet and exercise daily. Keeping a food and exercise journal, where you record what you eat and how long you exercise, is an excellent way to get started.
Organizations such as the American Diabetes Association, the American Heart Association, and the American Dietetic Association have developed guidelines that promote weight loss and healthy eating. These guidelines recommend that no more than 30% of your total calorie intake should come from fats. Overall, you should eat a wide variety of foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to stay healthy and maintain proper weight.
Many studies show that exercise -- from moderate to intense -- helps prevent obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Sports Medicine recommend at least 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity (such as a brisk walk) at least 5 days a week. You don't have to exercise for 30 minutes at a time; 10 minutes, 3 times a day, is also effective. In fact, any exercise -- from taking the stairs to cleaning the house or working in the garden -- is beneficial. You should also include muscle-strengthening activities -- lifting weights or working with resistance bands -- 2 days a week.
What to Expect at Your Provider's Office
Your doctor will use BMI to diagnose obesity. To determine BMI, weight in kilograms is divided by height in meters, squared. You can find online BMI calculators that do the math for you. As noted in the "Signs and Symptoms" section, the following BMI ranges are most often used to indicate that a person is overweight or obese:
Your doctor may also measure your blood pressure and percentage of body fat and order blood tests to check cholesterol levels and determine how well your thyroid is functioning.
Losing weight -- and then maintaining a healthy weight -- involves a combination of diet, exercise, and other lifestyle modifications. Although some medications, herbs, and supplements may help you lose a little weight, you still must eat fewer calories and exercise more to see any real effect. And you must make those behavioral changes stick to keep weight off. For severe obesity, bariatric surgery (which physically restricts the amount of food a person can eat) may be an option.
To lose weight, you must eat fewer calories and increase your physical activity to burn more calories. The key to losing and keeping off weight is to set realistic goals, and incorporate effective lifestyle changes into your daily routine.
Exercise can help you lose weight, especially in the first 6 months, and maintain your desired weight in the long term. Exercise not only contributes to weight loss, it also decreases abdominal fat and improves heart health, lowers blood pressure, and helps keep blood sugar levels in check.
If you are not used to exercising, start slowly and build up to 30 minutes a day for at least 5 days a week. An ideal exercise program includes aerobic activity (such as walking, swimming, or biking), strength training (lifting weights), and flexibility (stretching). If you are severely obese or have other medical problems, talk to your doctor before starting a new exercise program.
You may be sore at first. Some muscle soreness is normal. However, if you have pain that lasts more than 2 hours after your workout, see your doctor before continuing.
Some medications help promote weight loss, but there are no drugs to cure obesity. Weight loss medications should be used in addition to diet, exercise, and other lifestyle modifications. Many of these drugs are available by prescription only and some have serious side effects.
Over the Counter Medications
Orlistat (Alli) -- Alli reduces the amount of fat your body can absorb from foods. Side effects include oily stools, flatulence, and diarrhea. Alli also blocks your body from absorbing some vitamins and nutrients, so you should take a multivitamin daily. Weight loss with Alli tends to be modest, and you still need to follow healthy diet recommendations (eating more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and less saturated fat). Common side effects are bloating, flatulence, and fatty or oily stools.
Bariatric or weight loss surgery may be considered in cases where people are severely obese and lifestyle changes have not worked. It uses bands or staples to create a small pouch at the top of the stomach. The pouch reduces the amount of food that can be taken into the stomach. Physicians carefully select individuals for surgery, and patients must undergo psychological testing and counseling. People who have had bariatric surgery must be monitored by their doctor afterward to make sure they get enough essential nutrients. Procedures include:
Complementary and Alternative Therapies
Diet plans are enormously popular. They range from traditional low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets to high-protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets. The truth is, no specific diet works for everyone, and no diet works without the other essential components of weight loss -- exercise and stress management.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services says a healthy diet:
Among many weight loss plans available, the ones that generally result in a balanced diet include the Weight Watchers plan, the South Beach Diet, and the American Heart Association No Fad Diet. Beware of diets that promise quick, substantial weight loss; they often don't contain enough of the nutrients your body needs to stay healthy, and you're more likely to go off the diet and engage in binge eating, gaining the weight back. Weight loss of about 1 - 2 pounds per week is considered safe and sustainable. Before trying any diet, it is important to consult a health care practitioner to determine which plan is right for you.
Nutrition and Supplements
Most evidence for using these supplements in weight loss is either scant or mixed. None of these supplements will work for significant weight loss without changes to diet and exercise habits. Talk to your health care provider before using these supplements.
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) (600 - 900 mg per day) -- 5-HTP is thought to reduce hunger cravings by boosting serotonin levels in the central nervous system, which may reduce appetite and lessen food cravings. However, 5-HTP has been associated with eosinophilia myalgia syndrome (EMS), a rare and potentially fatal blood disorder, although it isn't clear whether 5-HTP actually contributes to developing the disorder. In addition, people who take antidepressant medications or herbs and supplements with antidepressant effects (such as St. John's wort and SAMe) should avoid 5-HTP. Talk to your doctor before taking 5-HTP.
Fiber -- Fiber may help lower insulin levels (insulin controls the amount of sugar in the blood) and help you feel fuller.
Calcium -- Calcium may play an important role in fat burning. Population studies show that higher dietary calcium levels are associated with lower BMIs.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) -- Preliminary human and animal studies suggest that CLA may help control weight by reducing body fat and enhancing lean body mass. However, the benefit appears to be slight; there is some question as to whether CLA can increase insulin resistance in overweight people (a precursor to developing diabetes). Also, studies show mixed results for weight loss. One recent study showed that mice given CLA lost weight but built up fat in their livers, while another study found that rats fed CLA didn't lose weight but lost fat in their livers. No one knows exactly what effect CLA would have on humans trying to lose weight.
Zinc (15 - 20 mg per day) -- may increase lean body mass and reduce or stabilize the amount of fat. The reason may be that zinc increases levels of leptin, a hormone in the body that helps you feel full. Zinc can interact with certain medications, including Cisplatin, and some antibiotics. Check with your physician.
Vitamin D and calcium (1,000 mg of calcium and 400 IU of vitamin D per day) -- One study found that in postmenopausal women, those who took calcium and vitamin D supplements were less likely to gain small to moderate amounts of weight than those who took placebo. Calcium can interfere with certain medications, including some antibiotics and thyroid medications. Calcium must be in balance with other minerals and electrolytes in the body, such as magnesium and phosphate. If you have medical issues that alter these levels, speak with your physician before taking calcium supplements.
Chitosan (1,500 mg 3 times per day) -- Chitosan is a fiber-like supplement made from the shells of crustaceans, such as shrimp and crab. While some studies have found that chitosan (in addition to a low-calorie diet) reduces weight, it is unclear whether the supplement itself, the low-calorie diet, or a combination of both led to the weight loss. Other studies have shown mixed results. Chitosan may have a blood-thinning effect, and therefore can interact with blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin (Coumadin) and aspirin.
Pyruvate (22 - 44 g per day) -- Pyruvate is a substance that occurs naturally in the body, where it is converted to lactic acid. There is some evidence that it may help reduce body fat, possibly by increasing the body's metabolic rate. Other studies show no effect.
Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) (2.5 g per day) -- This substance, extracted from the fruit Garcinia cambogia, is similar to citric acid (found in oranges and citrus fruits). In test tubes, HCA stops carbohydrates from being stored as fat, and some animal tests indicate HCA can suppress appetite. However, studies in humans show mixed results.
Chromium (600 mcg per day) -- Chromium or chromium picolonate is a popular supplement among body builders and those trying to lose weight and build more lean muscle mass. However, results from scientific studies have been mixed, and its effects are small compared to those of exercise and a well balanced diet. In a review of 10 studies, researchers found a significant reduction in body weight among chromium-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. Chromium may improve blood sugar (also a risk factor for heart disease), particularly in those with diabetes and glucose intolerance, but should not be taken for that purpose without a doctor's supervision. People with kidney or liver disease or psychiatric illness should check with their doctor before taking chromium supplements. Large doses of chromium can cause kidney damage.
Glucomannan (1 g 3 times per day, 1 hour before each meal) -- Glucomannan is a kind of insoluble fiber that appears to reduce blood sugar levels and may help promote weight loss. People with diabetes should not take glucomannan without their doctor's supervision.
Psyllium (Plantaginis ovatae) -- Psyllium, a kind of soluble fiber, may reduce hunger cravings by making you feel full. Adding psyllium and other sources of fiber into your diet may aid weight loss.
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) -- Researchers think that polyphenols (chemical substances found in plants that have antioxidant properties, protecting cells in the body against damage) found in green tea extract may boost metabolism and help burn fat. However, studies have shown mixed results so far. In addition, the extracts used in the studies have contained caffeine, which can increase metabolism and promote weight loss. If you are sensitive to caffeine or have anxiety or heart problems, you may want to limit how much green tea you consume.
Guggul (Commiphora mukal, 25 mg of guggulsterones 3 times per day) -- a common ingredient in several Ayurvedic medicines used to treat obesity. Studies suggest that overweight people who take these Ayurvedic remedies lose slightly more weight compared to those who do not take them. Guggul can cause mild diarrhea and nausea, and may interact with the following medications: blood-thinning drugs (anticoagulants), birth control pills, thyroid hormone, tamoxifen, and estrogens. People who take these medications should not take guggul. In addition, people who have or have had hormone sensitive cancers (breast, ovarian, or prostate cancer) should not take guggul.
Cayenne or capsaicin (Capsicum frutescens, 6 - 10 g per meal) -- Preliminary evidence indicates that capsaicin (the substance that makes chili peppers taste hot) may reduce hunger and help the body burn fat, particularly when eating a high-fat diet. More research is needed to confirm these early findings, however. Cayenne may increase blood thinning and may interact with blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin (Coumadin) and aspirin.
Hoodia (Hoodia gordonii) -- A number of media reports on hoodia have suggested it could be an effective weight loss supplement. However, the research on hoodia is preliminary, so no one knows whether hoodia works or whether it is safe. In addition, news reports now suggest that most hoodia supplements on the market today contain little if any of the actual herb. Until more research is done, and trusted sources exist to provide the herb, it's best to avoid hoodia.
Few studies have examined the effectiveness of specific homeopathic remedies, and there is no single or combination homeopathic remedy that will help all people lose weight. However, individualized homeopathic therapy can be designed to aid weight loss by addressing metabolism, digestion, and elimination. Before prescribing a remedy, homeopaths take into account a person's constitutional type -- your physical, emotional, and intellectual makeup. An experienced homeopath assesses all of these factors when determining the most appropriate remedy for an individual.
Many studies have found both acupuncture and acupressure can improve weight loss slightly. Acupuncture is believed to promote weight loss by stimulating points on the body that boost serotonin levels. (Higher serotonin levels are thought to suppress appetite.) One well-designed study found that people who received electrical acupuncture of the ear (auricular acupuncture) reduced their appetite.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Besides changing diet and exercise habits, successful weight loss often requires other behavioral changes to keep the weight off. That might include setting reasonable weekly or monthly goals -- how much exercise or how much weight loss you want, for instance -- and finding ways to reward yourself that don't involve food. Working with both a dietician and a behavioral specialist can help you put these practices into play.
It also helps to reduce the stress that leads to overeating by practicing relaxation exercises, such as yoga, meditation, or tai chi.
Finally, it is hard to lose weight without support. Support groups, such as Overeaters Anonymous or Weight Watchers, can help you stay focused on your goals. They also allow members to share success and encourage each other.
Although studies are mixed, some evidence indicates that hypnosis (especially when used in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, and a low-fat diet) may help overweight or obese people lose weight.
Pregnant women should not take any herbal remedies or over-the-counter or prescription medications for weight loss.
Obese women who become pregnant are at an increased risk for the following:
Prognosis and Complications
People who are overweight or obese increase their risk for developing the following conditions:
Eating and exercise habits are hard to change. Many people are able to lose at least 20 pounds with diet and exercise plans, but only about 10 - 20% can maintain that weight loss for a long period of time. Losing just 15 - 20 pounds, however, can reduce the risk of serious complications, such as diabetes and heart failure, by 10 - 25%.
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Review Date: 2/14/2013
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
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