The Stages of Myeloma

The risk of your myeloma spreading (metastasizing) is directly related to the size of your tumor or number of tumors. The term stage refers to the extent the tumor has spread. The stage is important in determining the likelihood of cure with treatment.

Small tumors are much less likely to have spread and have a higher likelihood of cure with treatment. Your surgeon will assign a stage to your cancer, but this often occurs after your surgery when the pathology results are available.

Myeloma is described with a system of Roman numerals to detail the progression of your disease. Your physician will assign a stage according to the specific involvement of your myeloma, which helps guide its treatment.

Myeloma is staged in two ways. The clinical stage is your physician’s best understanding of the progression of your disease, based on these results:

  • Physical exam
  • Lab tests
  • Imaging studies

If you’ve had a biopsy, your pathologist can assess the pathological stage of your myeloma, which may show that your lymphoma has spread more than first believed.

Myeloma spreads throughout your body in three ways:

  • Invades surrounding healthy tissue
  • Invades your lymph system and travels to other parts of your body
  • Invades your blood and travels through your veins and capillaries to other parts of your body

To determine if myeloma has spread, your physician may order one or more of the following tests:

  • CT scan
  • Chest X-ray
  • MRI
  • PET scan
  • Bone scan

Recurrent myeloma is myeloma that has returned (recurred) after treatment. It may come back in some other part of your body. You may need a combination of treatments to manage recurrent myeloma.


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