Diabetes, Type 2

Diabetes is a long-lasting (chronic) disease. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas does not make enough insulin (a hormone), and the body does not respond normally to the insulin that is made. This type of diabetes was also previously called adult-onset diabetes. It usually occurs after the age of 40, but it can occur at any age.


Type 2 diabetes happens because the pancreas is not making enough insulin or your body has trouble using the insulin that your pancreas does make properly.


  • Drinking more than usual.

  • Urinating more than usual.

  • Blurred vision.

  • Dry, itchy skin.

  • Frequent infections.

  • Feeling more tired than usual (fatigue).


The diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is usually made by one of the following tests:

  • Fasting blood glucose test. You will not eat for at least 8 hours and then take a blood test.

  • Random blood glucose test. Your blood glucose (sugar) is checked at any time of the day regardless of when you ate.

  • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Your blood glucose is measured after you have not eaten (fasted) and then after you drink a glucose containing beverage.


  • Healthy eating.

  • Exercise.

  • Medicine, if needed.

  • Monitoring blood glucose.

  • Seeing your caregiver regularly.


  • Check your blood glucose at least once a day. More frequent monitoring may be necessary, depending on your medicines and on how well your diabetes is controlled. Your caregiver will advise you.

  • Take your medicine as directed by your caregiver.

  • Do not smoke.

  • Make wise food choices. Ask your caregiver for information. Weight loss can improve your diabetes.

  • Learn about low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) and how to treat it.

  • Get your eyes checked regularly.

  • Have a yearly physical exam. Have your blood pressure checked and your blood and urine tested.

  • Wear a pendant or bracelet saying that you have diabetes.

  • Check your feet every night for cuts, sores, blisters, and redness. Let your caregiver know if you have any problems.


  • You have problems keeping your blood glucose in target range.

  • You have problems with your medicines.

  • You have symptoms of an illness that do not improve after 24 hours.

  • You have a sore or wound that is not healing.

  • You notice a change in vision or a new problem with your vision.

  • You have a fever.


  • Understand these instructions.

  • Will watch your condition.

  • Will get help right away if you are not doing well or get worse.